Saturday, May 6, 2023

A2VGA - Pico IIe Card

The A2VGA - Pico IIe is an Apple IIe specific VGA card for the budget conscious user. This card like many of the Apple II RGB video cards uses the raw video signals from the Apple IIe auxiliary slot. It's constructed from easy to obtain, through hole and relatively inexpensive components. These include the Pi Pico microcontroller, a level shifter, a diode, several resistors, sockets and some optional buttons. This is a product of my previous video investigations. Since I've had bugger all hobby time in quite a while I’ve only managed to get this knocked out because it’s been a small task. I guess you can say this is picking the low hanging fruit from the possible video cards I could have tackled.

Since the card uses the same signals which are available on the Apple IIc video port, The A2VGA - Pico IIc will be available at a later stage. This will contain the same firmware but will have a different form factor plus a 12V to 5V step down converter.

The card is super simple to build, super simple to use and super simple to update the firmware on. No special tools are needed for updating the firmware. Connect a USB cable from your PC to the Pi Pico and when a new drive pops up, you just copy to it the latest/desired firmware. Done. That's it.

The card can be used by itself if the Apple II only needs to run with 64kB. Extra memory needs to be plugged into the piggyback slot to run more memory hungry software and to use the DHGR video mode. The AIIE 80COL/64K MEMORY EXPANSION card works well as extra memory however, taller memory cards may have issues fitting under the lid. Once the memory card is inserted into the piggyback slot it is difficult to remove. I use a small screwdriver to gently lever the memory card out using the provided PCB holes.

I tested the card's display lag (see a previous post of mine if you are interested in how this is achieved) and on the Samsung SyncMaster 740N monitor I found that it was one frame behind the CRT monitor while on the DELL U2410 monitor it was two frames. I believe most of this delay comes from the monitor itself since the A2VGA does not have a video frame buffer as such. An internal A2 monochrome buffer is updated after every 32 bits that are read from the A2 bitstream. Independently the VGA generation part just processes and spits out a line at a time and performs this as fast as it can.

The card works by using the following video signals:

The required signals:
- 14M : Apple II video clock.
- SEROUT* : Luma part of the video signal ie the monochrome pixel bitstream.
- WNDW* : Start of line being displayed or SYNC* - Start of line at the left border. I provided a logic analyser screen shot showing the difference between WNDW and SYNC in my last video post.

Optional signals that are nice to have.
- GR : Sets up each line to display in colour or monochrome.
- LDPS : Not implemented on this project. Each Apple II display line is 560 pixels long (it does not matter what video mode is being used by the Apple II) however the starting location on the screen changes based on the video mode. For example, the 80 column text mode starts at a different location on the screen compared to 40 column text mode (four pixels of difference). LDPS can be used to align these video modes. Using a typical monitor, you get a black border around the displayed picture so most people will never notice this effect. I used this signal in my video streamer project because the display was in a 560 pixel window, meaning that without this signal I would have resorted to either chopping off one of the modes by 4 pixels or adding an unwanted vertical bar to the left or right side of the picture depending on which mode was selected.

How it works:
The input PIO section of the Pi Pico records the accessory bits (GR, LDPS if needed) and then 560 screen pixels into a 32bit aligned structure for each line. The monochrome A2 buffer needed is just over 14kB. This is a fraction of the 256k Pi Pico RAM available. The VGA generation code runs independently. Each VGA line is pre calculated based on a specific A2 colour model (AppleWin’s Composite Idealized) before being sent to the output PIO section. This section drives the VGA resistor DACs (Digital to Analog Converters) and Sync signals. The A2 display area 560x192 is displayed within the standard 640x480 resolution. The lines are doubled to produce a squarish look. When in scanline mode, every second line is blacked out making this appear as if the monitor contains scanlines. The colour model is a two-stage transformation. First, using a twelve-bit scrolling window, where the middle four bits are translated into four coloured pixels (each coloured pixel being 4bits ie the 16 Apple II colours). Then the second transformation converts each of these coloured pixels into the closest matched Apple II display colour using 16 bits (RGB565).

I’ve implemented the best looking colour model that I have at the moment. I’ve also turned on the scanline effect. I have not used any of the buttons yet. The board can output RGB565 however I got the project working using RGB555 since that was what the example project was configured for. I’m sure it is not going to make much difference, so I 'm not in a rush to fix it. I’ve still to test several options like the resistor values used for the DACs. I’ve used precise resistors ie 500k, 1k 2k, 4k, 8k and 16k however, resistors do not normally come in these values. They are obtainable but I would like to see how much of a difference it would make to the display if standard resistor values were used instead.

I’m looking at making some changes to the next PCB revision. These changes include:
1. Add an option for the VGA socket to be PCB mounted or externally connected via a cable.
2. Fix ribbon cable pinouts. Currently they are very close together making it horrible to wire on the cable.
3. Use 74LVC245 instead of the 4 line MOSFET level shifter. This will allow more signals to be added. I want to add Sync in case someone wants to rewrite my firmware using a different method. If you have any other signals you wish to add (which are available on both the Apple IIe aux slot and the Apple IIc video port) then let me know. I'll consider adding them as well.

1. The NTSC Apple IIe aux port is in a different location to a PAL aux port. I don't have a NTSC IIe motherboard to test on. I’m estimating clearances by going of pictures of motherboards.
2. Electrical interference. VGA is analog so you may experience noise from electrical interference, especially if a ribbon cable is going to be used for routing the VGA plug to the rear of the case. I can see slight interference effects on the display when looking for them. This is on one of my monitors while the other monitor looks totally fine. I get a different effect when using the IIe vs using the IIc. For example, I tried to locate a small shimmer that I am seeing when using the Apple IIc. I have tracked this down to being caused by the IIc power supply on the ground line. Not sure what I can do to mitigate this. More testing is needed.

The VGA generation pretty much uses an entire core and one of the PIO modules. The Raspberry Pi SDK VGA generation code could be replaced by an alternative, much simpler model (there are a few of these around) if more processing power is required. The second PIO is partially used up with importing the A2 video stream. Currently, the second core is only being used by one interrupt which occurs at the end of each line (handles the A2 horizontal and vertical sync processing).

The Pi Pico runs much slower than then Raspberry Pi Zero so I found that the colour model needed more optimisation to make it work. I'm happy that I was able to get it running without having to overclock the processor. To obtain better colour models (where higher screen resolutions are required and larger colour ranges ie RGB888) I suspect something more powerful than Pi Pico is needed. If efficiency was of no concern and money no object then we could throw a 3GHz processor at the problem and have something running that looked like OpenEmulator. However, I believe that there is a middle ground where FPGAs or Pi Zero like devices could be used to generate great colour models.

I've been tesing on the IIc for the most part because it is much easier to access the card.

Project files will be provided once the final card design is worked out, a schematic generated and the code cleaned up.

Here is a video of the cards output.

Update: 6th June, 2023.

Display of 80 Column Text. Note: scan line emulation is turned on.

Colour Killer testing, Mixed Mode (monochrome and colour) testing - VIDD7 mask, Power regulator testing.

Wednesday, May 3, 2023

Apple IIGS to RGB Adapter

On my hobby desk I usually keep my 9inch Sony monitor sitting around as it does not take up a lot of room. It supports composite as well as RGB so I can quickly connect up any of my Apple II variants. For the IIGS I've been using a bogey custom cable that I knocked up a long time ago. It's always been a pain for the times when I need the cable to be just a fraction longer. So it's been on my to do list for a while to put together an adapter so that I can use any of my various length component RGB cables. I recently put in to get a bunch of PCB boards made up and took the opportunity to include a PCB for a IIGS video to RGB adapter. I've allowed for a spot to attach an extra RCA socket in case I ever have a monitor which requires an external Sync signal.